Floating-point (Fractional) Numbers

Consider some popular type castings that we’re already familiar with. One or another object may have one or more of the following methods:

• .to_i - convert something to Integer (for example, convert string to a number)
• .to_s - convert something to String (for example, number to string)
• .to_f - convert something to fraction (for example, convert string to fraction)

Run REPL to see what the fraction is:

$irb > 3.14.class => Float  But… wait! It’s “Float”, not fraction! Why is that? In computer literature term floating point is derived from the fact that there is no fixed number of digits before and after the decimal point. For example, it can be 3.14 (1+2 digits) or 23.14069 (2+5 digits). That is, the decimal point can “float” to left and right. So fraction with “floating point” is represented by the class called “Float”. Also, we have right to represent any integer as a float: $ irb
> 123.class
=> Integer
> 123.0.class
=> Float


But why do we have Float type? For the same reason we have fractions, to do “accurate enough” math calculations. For precise calculations we must use type BigDecimal.

Let’s jump into differences between Float and BigDecimal real quick, so you understand it from the very beginning.

From Float documentation:

Float objects represent inexact real numbers using the native architecture’s double-precision floating point representation

From BigDecimal documentation:

BigDecimal provides similar support for very large or very accurate floating point numbers… Decimal arithmetic is also useful for general calculation, because it provides the correct answers people expect…

What? “Correct answers people expect”? Isn’t that something computers were built for? Why there is a need to emphasize that? The answer is easy.

Float documentation says “inexact real numbers” and “native architecture”. It means that all operations are performed natively on your computer’s CPU (Central Processor Unit, the main chip), which has capacity of 32 or 64 bits. These operations can be performed very quick, but 64 bits is just 8 bytes like “abcdefgh”, and that’s it!

Imagine we want to land Curiosity on Mars and we need to perform some calculations with Pi constant to certain level of precision, like 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592307816406286… But this value will not fit into 64 bits, it’s well over 8 bytes! So it can’t be calculated “natively” on CPU. If you try it, the value will be rounded to 3.141592653589793, and Curiosity spacecraft can land somewhere else.

But if you really need this type of precision, you still can do Curiosity calculations with Ruby, but you should use BigDecimal. In this case values will be stored in RAM (Random Access Memory) and calculations will be much slower, because this time your CPU will need to read and write from RAM, instead of just using one of its internal registers.

In other words, when you need “correct answers people expect”, use BigDecimal. If you’re okay with “inexact real numbers using the native architecture”, use Float. We don’t need to be very precise in our book, so we’ll use Float. Let’s write a program to calculate 30% tax for our salary:

puts "Your salary?"
salary = gets.to_i
tax_rate = 0.3
puts "Tax:"
puts salary * tax_rate


Try to run this program and see how it works.